FidoNet: Technology, Use, Tools, and History

This is a paper written and presented by Randy Bush at the International Networking Conference, INET'92, Kobe Japan, 15-18 June'92. It confirms and details more historical information about Fidonet and its history.

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                        FidoNet: Technology, Use, Tools, and History

                                        Randy Bush

                      Copyright 1992-3, Randy Bush.  All rights reserved.
                            FidoNet is a trademark of Tom Jennings.


        FidoNet is a point-to-point and store-and-forward email WAN which uses
        modems on the direct-dial telephone network. It was developed in 1984, and
        has over 20,000 public nodes worldwide.  Although originally based on MS-DOS
        hosts, it has been ported to environments ranging from UNIX to the Apple //.
        There are gateways from FidoNet to the Internet, usually via the uucp

        Technical Overview

        The public FidoNet consists of over 20,000 nodes which move email and enews
        over the public telephone network using a unique protocol and data format.
        As the initial implementations were written for MS-DOS, DOS-based hosts are
        still the vast majority of the network.  But semi-formal specifications for
        the data formats and protocols have facilitated implementations for UNIX,
        Apples from the // to the Macintosh, CP/M, MVS, the Tandy CoCo, and many
        other platforms.

        As FidoNet is almost entirely financed by private individuals, minimization
        of modem/telephone time has been the principal driving force behind any
        design of the data transfer protocols.  The original implementations used an
        inefficient xmodem-based transport, a non-windowed ACK/NAK protocol with 128
        byte packets.  Although rarely used in practice, this protocol remains the
        minimal basic standard implementation today as it is trivial to code.
        Almost all current implementations offer an optional suite of quite
        efficient zmodem-based streaming transport protocols which are ACK-less,
        only NAKing in case of error.  It is interesting to contrast this push for
        efficiency with uucp's profligate G protocol and the Internet's SMTP and
        NNTP protocols.

        Addressing within FidoNet is numeric with a bit of punctuation, and
        specifies a particular node in the administrative hierarchy.  Addresses are
        of the form zone:net/node where zone is one of the six continents (North
        America, Europe, Oceania, Asia, or Africa), net is the city (or larger area
        if the node density is sparse), and node is the particular host within the
        local network.  For example, 1:105/6 is host number six within the Portland
        Oregon US local network (net 105) which is in North America ( zone 1).  The
        addressing scheme may be extended to accommodate points which are power
        users who reduce their connect time by using private (i.e.  unlisted) nodes
        to exchange email and enews with public nodes.  Thus the extended addressing
        scheme is zone:net/node.point, e.g., 1:105/6.42.

        A list of all nodes in the public FidoNet network is automatically updated
        and distributed weekly.  This list contains the actual data telephone number
        of each host, as well as the geographic location and name of the system
        operator (sysop).  Every city's local network maintains its local data and
        sends those data to a regional coordinator who, in turn, sends the region's
        aggregated data to a continental coordinator.  The continental coordinators
        exchange their data, and create a list of the differences between the
        current week's data and that of the previous week.  This `nodediff' is then
        distributed back down the hierarchy all the way to each individual node in
        the network.

        As all modem phone numbers are published in the nodelist, point-to-point
        transfers are always possible.  But, as store-and-forward capabilities are
        specified in the basic standards, email tends to be routed through a
        world-wide hierarchic topology and enews via a world-wide ad hoc, but
        generally geographically hierarchic, acyclic graph.


        FidoNet's addressing hierarchy - zone, net, node, point - approximates the
        route which email follows.

        Power users run points which may connect to only their respective host nodes
        to receive and deliver their email and enews.  As they are not in the public
        nodelist, points are not considered to be official nodes in the network, and
        thus are not subject to constraints of technology, national mail hour, etc.

        Within a local network (i.e. city), nodes usually exchange email directly
        with each other.  For example, 1:105/6 exchanges mail directly with all
        other nodes in 1:105/*.  In those cities where phone tariff zones divide the
        city, local hubs are used to concentrate intra-city traffic to reduce costs.

        Each local network has one node with an alias of node 0 (i.e. zone:net/0)
        which is known as the "inbound host."  By default, all mail from outside the
        local net is delivered to the inbound host to be distributed within the
        local network.  Thus, a node in New York may deliver all mail to San
        Francisco with a single telephone call, as opposed to a call for every SF
        node for which it has mail.  While each node is responsible for sending its
        own mail (as FidoNet is financed from the pockets of individuals), some
        local networks cooperate sufficiently to provide an "outbound host" to
        concentrate all mail destined for outside the city.

        Each of the six zones (continents) has a unique host which provides
        inter-zone email routing. These "zonegates" have alias addresses of the form
        orig-zone:orig-zone/dest-zone. For example, the gate from North America
        (zone 1) to Oceania (zone 3) has an addressing alias of the form 1:1/3.
        Hence, a node in North America may save the cost of an inter-continental
        call to Australia by sending the message to 1:1/3, which will in turn send
        it to 3:3/1, which will see that it is delivered within Australia.

        Since November, 1991, an experimental system has been using the Internet to
        transport mail and enews between Europe and North America.  The data are
        moved directly between the zonegates via IP (i.e. not gated between data
        formats) courtesy of RIPE and EUnet.  This saves FidoNet operators thousands
        of dollars a month.  Since late in 1992, this tunneling of the Internet has
        been extended to Taiwan, Southern Africa, Chile, and other areas.  This is
        done with the explicit consent of the IP carriers involved, to whom FidoNet
        owes a considerable debt of gratitude.

        Gateways to the Other Networks

        There are gateways between FidoNet and the uucp network, and thereby the
        Internet.  FidoNet is addressable from the Internet DNS universe via the DNS
        zone  A FidoNet node e.g. 1:105/42 has the domainized name  Gating is done almost exclusively via the uucp
        network.  The MX forwarders for the zone are set up such that
        there is default forwarding for all FidoNet hosts should there be no gateway
        which is local to the target host.

        The correct RFC822 address for a FidoNet power user at point zo:ne/no.po
        is user@Ppo.Fno.Nne.Zzo.FIDONET.ORG.  For example, 


        And, as points are optional in FidoNet, Jane User at the BBS user at node
        zone:net/node is user@Fnode.Nnet.Zzone.FIDONET.ORG.  For example, 


        The UFGATE package, which allows an MS-DOS-based FidoNet node to simulate a
        uucp host, gates both email and enews.  This package made gating fairly
        popular by 1987.  More recently, other DOS packages have provided similar
        features.  RFmail, a complete FidoNet implementation which runs on UNIX SysV
        and Xenix, includes gateware to transform between FidoNet message format and
        that of the uucp/Internet.

        Currently there are on the order of one hundred gateway systems, most of
        them in North America.  Aside from the expected inter-network email, there
        is considerable gating of Usenet news to and from FidoNet echomail

        A number of newsgroups are shared globally by FidoNet and the Usenet, e.g.
        FidoNet's MODULA-2 echomail conference is Usenet's comp.lang.modula2 and
        FidoNet's K12Net conferences are the Usenet's k12.* hierarchy.  Usenet
        newsgroups are also made available on a purely local basis in many cities as
        FidoNet echomail.

        Internetwork gateways have been used extensively by non-governmental
        organizations (NGOs) in Africa, as well as by an ingenious transport between
        the South African academic IP network (UNINET-ZA) and the Internet
        [Guillarmod 92].


        The public FidoNet has approximately 20,000 nodes worldwide.  Although
        FidoNet started in North America, by 1985 there were systems in Europe, very
        soon followed by systems on the other continents.  Currently, about 59% of
        the publicly listed nodes are in North America, 30% in Europe, 4% in
        Australia and New Zealand, and 7% in Asia, Latin America, and Africa.

        FidoNet technology is also used privately within large corporations, public
        institutions, and NGOs.  While the scale of the private use of FidoNet is
        not known, it is estimated to be at least as large as the public network.
        It is known to be used in companies such as AT&T, Georgia Pacific, and the
        Canadian Post Office, among others.  It is heavily used by NGOs in Africa.

        While hobbyists and public BBSs predominate the North American FidoNet,
        perhaps half of the public systems in Europe are subsidized by small to
        medium-scale businesses.  In Africa, there is very serious use by NGOs and
        poorly-funded academic institutions.  Within North America, there is growing
        use within the school systems thanks to the spreading K12Net [Murray 92].

        While the original FidoNet systems were fully integrated within bulletin
        board systems, FidoNet "mail-only" systems are now a noticeable portion of
        the public network.  These provide the owner a facility similar to ham radio
        or a fax machine, but provide no public access via dial-up.

        Around the world, BBSs with FidoNet capability provide the most publicly
        accessible and lowest-cost email and enews service today.  While most BBSs
        are only usable by a single dial-up caller at a time, others run multi-line
        systems ranging from two to 20 lines.  Public access requirements vary from
        formal user validation and possibly a small fee to completely open
        facilities allowing full use by the first-time caller.

        Although no formal measurements have been made, it has been estimated that
        the average FidoNet BBS has over 200 active users, half of whom use enews
        and 5% use private email.  As not all FidoNet nodes have BBS access, we can
        estimate that on the order of 2,000,000 FidoNet users read or write enews,
        and on the order of 200,000 of these use private email.


        In 1984, Tom Jennings wished to move messages from his MS-DOS-based Fido BBS
        to that of a friend, John Madil.  As Jennings was the author of the Fido
        BBS, he was able to quickly modify it to extract messages from a specially-
        designated local message base and queue them for sending to the remote BBS.
        As US telephone rates are much lower in the middle of the night, he wrote a
        separate external program to run this email transfer for one designated hour
        to exchange mail with the other node.

        This soon grew to more nodes, reaching 200 by early in 1985.  The nodelist,
        a list of all known active nodes in the public FidoNet, was developed as a
        distributed external file and was initially maintained by Jennings.  The
        reserved mail transfer hour became enshrined as "national mail hour," and is
        preserved today despite current technology being capable of intermixing mail
        transfer and BBS access.

        With the porting of FidoNet to the DEC Rainbow, FidoNet BBSs became quite
        popular with the DEC Users Group in St. Louis Missouri.  Ken Kaplan and Ben
        Baker were particularly active, and started the first FidoNet newsletter.
        As the nodelist approached 100 members, Kaplan and Baker took over from
        Jennings its organization and maintenance.

        As the nodelist passed the 200 mark, it became obvious that, for example,
        San Francisco had much daily traffic for St. Louis and vice versa, and
        dozens of telephone calls were being placed to all the various nodes in each
        city.  As calls within a city of the US are generally free, but calls
        between cities are not, it seemed obvious to concentrate the intercity
        traffic into one call per night.  Therefore, what had been a simple linear
        nodelist was broken into a structure of city segments transforming the
        FidoNet address notation from node to net/node.

        In late 1986, it became obvious that an analogous problem existed between
        the continents.  At the same time, the idea emerged of power users, or
        points, who could use FidoNet data formats and transport protocols (as
        opposed to BBS interfaces) to send and receive their mail and enews.  So, at
        a FidoNet Standards Committee meeting in October 1986, the nodelist was
        redesigned as a four level hierarchy of zone (continent), net, node, and
        point, with the address becoming zone:net/node.point, as it remains today.

        The rate of growth of FidoNet seems typical of electronic networks in the
        last decade. The approximate number of nodes at year ends is:

        Year     Nodes

        1984       100
        1985       600
        1986      1400
        1987      2500
        1988      4000
        1989      6500
        1990      9000
        1991     11000
        1992     16000
        1993     20000 (Apr '93)

        At present, the registered public FidoNet is considerably larger than BITNET
        and has recently passed the estimated size of the registered part of the
        uucp network.

        In February 1986, Jeff Rush developed FidoNet's form of enews called
        echomail.  As very few FidoNetters were familiar with the Usenet, they were
        quite surprised at the popularity and rate of growth of echomail.  Within
        two weeks, an international echomail conference, MODULA-2, was propagated
        between Europe, Australia, and North America, and today the daily volume of
        compressed echomail is over eight megabytes.  The social effects, both good
        and bad, of echomail on the network parallel those of the Usenet.

        Although primitive experiments had been conducted earlier, in 1986 gateways
        between FidoNet and the uucp network, and hence the Internet, became
        sufficiently reliable for production use.

        Technical Standards

        Technical standards development began in 1986, with the publication of
        FSC-0001 describing the then-extant xmodem-based protocol suite and the
        basic data formats [Bush 1986].  This was shortly followed by a description
        of the nodelist in FSC-0002 [Baker 87].  A FidoNet Standards Committee (now
        FTSC) was formed in 1986 by the then-active software authors, chaired by a
        non-author.  The FTSC collects and publishes documents called FSCs, which
        are similar to the IETF's RFCs.  Those which are voted as formal standards
        are known as FTS documents.

        There are approximately 80 FSC documents at this time and five official FTS
        standards. Some of the more interesting are:

        Document     Topic
        FTS-0001     basic data formats and protocols
        FTS-0004     format of echomail
        FTS-0005     syntax and semantics of the nodelist
        FTS-0006     enhanced session and transport protocols
        FSC-0034     control data embedded within message text

        The current document set is kept on many FidoNet nodes and is available via
        ftp on the internet as


        FTS-0001 describes the original message data formats, session protocols, and
        link layer protocols for FidoNet as it was originally developed by Tom
        Jennings.  The ability for a node to obey this standard is mandatory if it
        wishes to be listed within the public FidoNet, although the vast majority of
        connections now use the far more efficient FTS-0006 suite.  Data transfer
        uses xmodem and a variant called TLink, 128 byte block ACK/NAK protocols,
        neither of which is streaming, bidirectional, or windowing, and which
        discriminate between email and file transfer at the session and data
        transfer level.  Mid-file restart recovery is also absent.

        The FTS-0006 session and link layer protocols [Becker 90] were developed by
        Wynn Wagner and Vince Perriello in 1987 to overcome the serious inefficiency
        of FTS-0001. The default data link layer described uses zmodem, a very
        efficient streaming, windowing, and ACK-less (NAK only on failure) protocol
        designed by Chuck Forsberg.  It also provides mid-file restart recovery. The
        YooHoo/2U2 session level protocol provides for exchange of identification
        and authorization data as well as allowing negotiation of the link layer

        Common Software Components

        Like their uucp/Internet brethren, FidoNet systems tend to have different
        components to act as user, transfer/routing, and transport agents.  While
        not all FidoNet implementations are composed identically, on the whole the
        following concepts and nomenclature are understood throughout FidoNet.

        A Bulletin Board System (BBS) is often available which provides a mail and
        news user agent (M/NUA) to dial-up callers of the BBS, and often provides a
        console interface for the system operator as well.  As BBS M/NUAs must be
        usable by dial-up users on unspecified terminals, the interfaces tend to be
        line oriented with rather primitive editing facilities.  Some BBS systems
        such as Fido and Opus provide complete software suites integrating all
        components necessary to use FidoNet, while most other BBSs require the
        addition of external components to use them with FidoNet.

        An Editor is a console M/NUA which is usually available for those nodes
        which do not have a BBS or where the system operator prefers a different
        interface.  As the system console generally has known characteristics,
        Editor M/NUAs tend toward screen-oriented, multi-color, fancy interfaces,
        often with quite sophisticated editing capabilities.

        A Packer or Scanner is analogous to the mail/news transfer agent (M/NTA). It
        transforms the data to/from the internal (i.e. not standardized) storage
        format from/to the external FTS-0001/4 transmission format.  Packer M/NTAs
        also make routing decisions, usually based on data in a local routing rule
        file.  These local routing rules tell the M/NTA what routes to use for mail
        within the local city network, cost-reduction routes for mail within the
        zone, and any special routes for inter-zone mail.  The NTA portion uses an
        echomail rule base to decide which echomail groups are to be exchanged with
        which other nodes in the network.

        A Mailer is the session and link level transport layer which decides when to
        make and accept FidoNet calls to/from other nodes, and provides everything
        needed to transport the email, enews, and files between FidoNet nodes.
        Mailers know about modems and how to control them, how to detect if an
        incoming call is a human BBS user as opposed to an incoming FidoNet call,
        how to pass humans through to a BBS, what times of day to place expensive
        but time-dependent calls, etc.  Because the mailer provides the link level
        protocols, its characteristics determine inter-node compatibility; therefore
        a node is best known for the mailer it runs.  Hence a node might be known as
        a Binkley node or a Fido node because it uses BinkleyTerm or Fido as its

        A Nodelist Compiler transforms the nodelist from the standard FTS-0005
        distribution format to that needed by the node's other software, i.e.
        mailer, BBS, editor, and/or packer.  Aside from trivial differences in
        syntax, more complex translations may be needed.  I.e. mailer software
        usually requires that telephone numbers be transformed given local rules.

        Policy and Politics

        In contrast to the uucp network or the Internet, and due mostly to the low
        cost of entry, from its earliest days, FidoNet has been owned and operated
        primarily by end-users and hobbyists more than by computer professionals.
        Therefore, social and political issues arose in FidoNet far faster and more
        seriously than might be expected by those raised in other network cultures.

        Tom Jennings intended FidoNet to be a cooperative anarchy to provide
        minimal-cost public access to electronic mail.  Two very basic features of
        FidoNet encourage this.  Every node is self-sufficient, needing no support
        from other nodes to operate.  But more significant is that the nodelist
        contains the modem telephone number of all nodes, allowing any node to
        communicate with any other node without the aid or consent of technical or
        political groups at any level.  This is in strong contrast to the uucp
        network, BITNET, and the Internet.

        In 1985, the first FidoNet policy document was published.  It concerned
        itself almost entirely with technical procedural issues.  It required a
        capability to send and receive email, defined the "national mail hour" as
        mandatory, delineated roles of the local network hubs and nodelist
        coordinators, and stated simple restrictions on routing of traffic through
        unsuspecting nodes.  In addition, it stated two social rules, a proscription
        against use of the network for illegal purposes (e.g. pirated software) and
        a statement of FidoNet's basic social guideline, "Do not be excessively
        annoying and do not become excessively annoyed."

        In 1986, a well-intentioned but naive group formed the International FidoNet
        Association, intending to promulgate the technology and coordinate
        publication of the newsletter and other writings about the network.
        Unfortunately, as FidoNet operators were far more socially oriented than
        their more technical brethren in the other networks, the formal organization
        of IFNA tended to draw considerable political interest and attracted the
        less constructive political elements of the FidoNet culture.  The issue came
        to a head in 1989 with an attempt to load the IFNA board of directors and
        pass a motion which explicitly put IFNA in complete control of the network.
        The motion was cleverly forced into a netwide referendum (FidoNet's only
        global vote to date) which required a majority of the network assent to IFNA
        rule.  The referendum did not pass, and IFNA was subsequently dissolved.

        The first written policy was published and adopted by informal consent.
        Subsequently, three revisions of FidoNet policy have been written and made
        operational by various, but less democratic, procedures.  The current
        document, Policy-4, was written by the regional nodelist coordinators, and
        has a large amount of social and political content enshrining a hierarchy of
        coordinators: an International Coordinator (IC), a Zone Coordinator (ZC) in
        each continent, Regional Coordinators (RCs) in subdivisions of the
        continents, usually countries, and a Network Coordinator (NC) for each local
        network.  As it was written by the self-anointed RCs, ZCs and the IC are
        elected by the RCs and NCs are appointed by the RCs.  Although the document
        has caused considerable acrimony and is large and complex, it contains many
        useful operational guidelines, so is generally observed.

        The amazing resilience of FidoNet's social and technical structure was made
        evident yet again in 1989-90, when the RCs in many of the continents
        attempted to exert serious social control under the recently published
        Policy-4.  While echomail provided quite high-bandwidth (albeit low content)
        communication, and thus the political situation could be openly debated, the
        power structure's inability to restrict node-to-node communication prevented
        any real control from being effected.  A fair number of RCs and NCs were
        forced to resign, and the rest have since taken more passive and
        facilitative roles.


        [Baker 87] Ben Baker, FSC-0027, "The Distribution Nodelist"

        [Becker 90] Phil Becker, FTS-0006, "YOOHOO and YOOHOO/2U2: The netmail
        handshake used by Opus-CBCS and other intelligent FidoNet mail handling

        [Bush 86] Randy Bush, FTS-0001, "A Basic FidoNet Technical Standard"

        [Guillarmod 92] F. Jacot Guillarmod, "From FidoNet to Internet: the
        evolution of a national network", "Proceedings of INET'92", H. Ishida

        [Murray 92] Murray, Janet, "K12 Network: Global Education through
        Telecommunications", "Proceedings of INET'92", H. Ishida Editor.
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